The Biggest Factor For Gaining Muscle


By: Brad Dieter, PhD

Read Time: 5 minutes

TLDR; Eat more, then eat even more and stop training fasted

“I can’t gain muscle, I am eating a lot and training hard. I really don’t know what to do. What do I need to do?!”.

This is one of the most frequent questions we get.  You probably think your lean mass gains are only a combination of some complex formula for macros, a secret ratio of carbs to protein, and some spot on meal timing away from your gains.

The truth is your problem is far simpler than that and I am going to cut through all the garbage and give it to you simple and dirty.


That old idea of calories in and calories out is a key player here!

When it comes to nutrition, the concept of calories is both the most and least well understood concept (in fact, we break it down in our video on body recomp here). There are extremely big debates on the subject but their remains one very clear concept. If you consume more calories than your body expends, you will gain weight. If you consume fewer calories than your body expends, you will lose weight.  That seems pretty simple right? Well, truth be told, it is both that simple and incredibly complicated.

Let’s break it down a bit in regards to gaining muscle

 THE SIMPLE: When we boil it down, it really is balancing a scale. If you have more energy coming in than going out you gain weight (which is our focus) and if you have more energy going out than coming in you lose weight (opposite of our focus).

THE COMPLEX: The balance of that scale is a quagmire. We know the 1 input to the equation: food. But what controls the output (energy expenditure) is dictate by more processes than you can imagine… exercise, non-exercise physical activity (NEPA), the thermic effect of food (TEF), thyroid hormone, cortisol, sex hormones, neural regulation (i.e. leptin signaling).  Let me demonstrate with a figure.


cico balance

Does that seem super daunting and complicated? Well the body is a complicated machine but fortunately you only really have two options to deal with this mess of a thing we call human physiology.

Option 1: You can freak out about all the stuff controlling calories out and try and scrutinize everything you do to try and optimize them (which is a bad idea because they are complex systems)

Option 2: You can focus on the left hand side, aka the input. This is your food.

Lets go with option 2. Trust me its far easier and more enjoyable. It is simple, dominate your food intake.

If you are hammering it in the gym, increasing volume (by increasing the weight, sets, or reps), not training fasted (more on that in a bit), and aren’t seeing any more progress, you aren’t eating enough.

Now I know you are going to say, “but I am eating enough, trust me, I eat so much”. Well, sorry, but you aren’t eating enough.

If you are a 6-foot, 185 pound male trying to put on mass you are going to need around 3,000 calories just to meet your daily energy expenditure (assuming you move around during the day). Add you in training your face off on top of that you are going to need to be eating upwards of 3,500 – 4,000 calories day to see any real big increases in muscle mass in a short amount of time*.

Let’s take the high end. Trying to eat 4,000 calories in a day is not an easy task, especially if you adopt the chicken breast, broccoli, potato approach to your nutrition. I mean, lets say you go with a 30/40/30 ratio of protein/carbs/fat for you macros, that means you will be eating around 300 grams of protein and 400 grams of carbs.

That is an obscene amount of chicken breast, kale, and potato. . . You probably need to add in some more calorie dense (more calories per volume) foods like beef, eggs, rice, honey, nut butters etc.
*This is an estimate. . . your calorie needs are going to be different so don’t just blindly follow that number and email me saying you didn’t see the changes you want. . . some more direct work is required to figure out your exact level of intake needed. However, it is safe to say if you can’t gain muscle and are training hard just start eating more food.

Bonus Tip: Stop Training Fasted

For years it has been fitness lore that you are going to burn more fat and get shredded training fasted. Sadly, that is not the case. In a study comparing fed versus fasted cardio, training fasted showed no benefit for fat loss, and may have led to greater losses in muscle mass(cite). Conversely, there are studies showing that if you eat before training you might elicit greater muscle growth than if you consume the same meal post workout or train fasted4 (probably due to the ability to train a bit harder and longer).

If you are trying to get more calories in to fix the lack of food problem above getting an extra pre workout snack is an easy way to get more calories on board.

Also, we should just think this through. You want to gain muscle. . . why would you try and get cut during the same workout or training period you are try to add a lot of muscle to your frame? Yes, you want to add as much lean tissue as possible and as little fat tissue as possible but for goodness sake, trying to get cut while adding muscle is just not a super productive strategy.
Given that it is as easy as drinking some whey and eating a banana before you train, you should probably stop training fasted if you are focused on making gains.

14 thoughts on “The Biggest Factor For Gaining Muscle

  • Do you know how big of a role does being lean have for buildng muscle ? Let’s say you are a male and your bodyfat is 20 % and you’re going for a 2 month bulk during which you plan to add 1-2 kg (2-5 pounds). What if you were 10 % BF, how much more muscle gains could you expect ? Are there some studies done on this ?

    • I think there is kind of a wide window. Anecdotally When you are super super lean (i.e. 3-7/8%) it is more difficult to put on mass than when you are say >9%. I find most people have better success trying to stay in the low teens during most of the year and then doing smaller cuts than bouncing from like 6-7% up to like 20%. . .

  • I have been following your name/ brand for about 6 months now and receive your emails. Sadly, I admit that this is only the second post of yours I have read. But, on that note, I would like to say that I really enjoyed this post, the value you bring to the table in all of your posts, and your writing style. 👍🏻😄🤓Thanks, Brad!

  • Hi Brad…

    What do you mean with training fasted? fasted in a way that involved a previous muscular and hepatic depletion or just any, like for example a hepatic depletion doing a 16/8 IF…
    Would be different Full depletion Vs. Hepatic depletion (16/8 IF) in terms of muscle building?
    Thanks in advanced and sorry for my English

    Cheers fron Spain

    • I think that if your goal is to get bigger and you are stuck there really isn’t any additional value in training fasted. . . regardless of hepatic or muscular. In truth, there is almost never any circumstance when depletion is isolated to either liver or muscles. . .

  • Would it ever make sense to train high rep (typical hypertrophy ranges) while keeping calories near or under maintenance?

    • Yes, in fact it would make a lot of sense. We are currently working on an article on this exact topic. It makes more sense to focus on volume, rather than intensity during periods of maintenance or caloric deficits

  • Hi Brad,

    If you’re slowly gaining weight on a low calorie intake (due to coming off a diet and now being 7-8 PBF), would you still favor pre-workout nutrition? And if the client prefers to have more calories during the day/evening, how much difference would it make if he were to eat let’s say roughly 200 calories before workout instead of working out fasted?

    Best regards,

    • I think I would still default to it being a better option than not for most people. . . but that doesn’t mean you can’t train fasted. I think that 200 calories would be far more beneficial in terms of energy during training than not. . . but again, some people do just fine fasted!

  • Thanks for this post, Brad. Even with a degree in both exercise bio and nutrition, I always end up obsessing on the minutiae (ie macro breakdown, the perfect lifting program) when it comes to gaining muscle and weight. As a small female, it’s hard to eat so much (and I tend to be super active, which just necessitates MORE calories). This post was a great reminder that the solution is simple.

    • Thanks Megan! I get that feeling to. I also struggle from not eating enough. . . more just from a time and logistics standpoint but those are also excuses. I just need to eat more and train harder 😉

  • Great article… thou what do you suggest for me? Training at 4:30am (up at 4am). 25% body fat, want to maintain size, but drop to 15% body fat?

  • Great article, once again… Any easy ways to calculate calories for loosing weight, maintenance, gain mass. ??? Thank you in advance!!

Comments are closed.